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September 2021





Stephen Bourne MB, MRCGP


The toxic properties of dental mercury are well known (1, 2, 3) and dental mercury has been banned in the Scandinavian countries (4). There are no published UK studies in this field.


In the United Kingdom, dental assistants wear protective clothing when preparing dental amalgam and after dentists have removed mercury amalgam fillings from their patients’ mouths, they must put them into sealed containers for eventual safe disposal so that mercury vapour from the removed fillings cannot contaminate the ecosystem and poison plants and animals. The British Dental Association (BDA) has not explained why it considers that mercury amalgam that is toxic when handled and that can contaminate the ecosystem is not toxic inside people’s mouths.


The BDA’s current recommendation is that ‘the continued use of dental amalgam is time-limited on the basis of environmental mercury pollution as recommended by the Minamata Treaty. The recommendation includes a planned phase-down of use of dental amalgam with an anticipated complete phase-out by 2030’ (4).  This conclusion does not take into account environmental research (2,4), human research (1,4,5,6) and animal research (12), that indicate dental mercury is toxic for humans and animals. Although the BDA advises that dental mercury is toxic for pregnant women and for children, it has also failed to explain why it considers that dental mercury is not toxic for adults.


Although the BDA maintains that mercury amalgam fillings are safe, it has not taken into account dental research that has become possible with the Jerome J431-X and the new J405-0 mercury vapour analysers. This technology can measure levels of oral mercury vapour and has shown that chewing gum and drinking hot drinks cause significant release of mercury vapour from amalgam dental fillings into subjects’ mouths. The technology has been demonstrated to the author by a London Harley street dentist, Dr Heshem El-Essawy. Such release of mercury vapour from amalgam dental fillings into subjects’ mouths is inconsistent with the BDA’s assertion that amalgam dental fillings are stable and consequently not a source of chronic mercury poisoning.


A meta-analysis of patients treated for dental mercury toxicity has shown that 89% of 1569 patients treated, experienced ‘that their symptoms had improved or were eliminated after safe replacement of their mercury amalgam dental fillings’ (5).


Mercury from dental amalgam fillings is a systemic toxin that can contribute to the pathogenesis of any chronic medical condition (5), particularly to anxiety, phobias, Parkinson’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, allergies, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, arthritis and strokes (6).


During1981, a fifty-one year old patient with malignant hypertension and severe chronic migraine joined my NHS general practice. His symptoms did not respond to conventional medical treatment from his previous GP, from myself and subsequently from several private consultant physicians. He was eventually successfully treated by George Lewith MRCP (deceased), who identified high voltage mercury amalgam dental fillings as the causes of his refractory migraine and hypertension and referred him to a mercury free dental colleague for replacement of his toxic high voltage mercury amalgam dental fillings. The patient’s symptoms cleared up immediately after the dentist, who was a member of the British Society for Mercury free dentistry (7), replaced his high voltage metallic mercury amalgam dental fillings.


At the time, the patient was incapacitated by chronic poor health. Since his high voltage amalgam dental fillings were replaced, he has led a full and active life. Currently forty years later (spring 2021), he is aged eighty-nine.


Here is the patient’s account of his experience.

“In 1981, I was aged fifty one and seriously ill with malignant hypertension and migraine. Conventional medical treatment had not helped. My GP at the time, Dr Bourne, eventually suggested that I consult Dr George Lewith at his clinic in Upper Harley Street. Dr Lewith compared my amalgam dental fillings to ’having a battery in my mouth’. He used a simple DC voltmeter to measure the voltages at my amalgam dental fillings.


As an electrical engineer, I did not find it surprising that Dr Lewith identified my high voltage amalgam dental fillings (in excess of 1.5 Volts) as the causes of my migraine and high blood pressure. It is obvious that chunks of amalgam containing several different metals in acidic saliva form a battery, that would destabilise cerebral electrical activity, which would be demonstrable with an EEG.


The rest is history. Dr Lewith referred me to a mercury free dentist, who replaced my high voltage amalgam dental fillings. The result was quick and astonishing: the migraines and malignant hypertension ceased and there was a distinct improvement in my energy levels. Removing my high voltage amalgam dental fillings has proved to be a life changing procedure.”


Dr Lewith organised weekend courses for doctors and dentists at the Centre for the Study of Complementary Medicine in Southampton (8) and in view of my patient’s remarkable recovery, I attended several courses and began an ongoing interest in integrative medicine.  


Subsequently, in NHS general practice, I noticed that a few patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and who were unable to work and who had not responded to conventional medical treatment, had high voltage dental amalgam fillings. My attempts to have these replaced were unsuccessful because appropriate dental treatment was not and is still not provided for NHS patients. There are two reasons for this.


  1. Medical problems caused by high voltage dental amalgam fillings do not become evident until several years after placement, and patients with such medical problems do not consult their dentists.

  2. Although chronically ill patients with high voltage dental amalgam fillings consult their doctors, most doctors are unaware of the association between high voltage dental fillings and chronic health deterioration as this association is not described in medical textbooks.


Since specialising in integrative medicine in retirement from general practice, I have found that some chronically ill patients, who had not responded to conventional medical treatment, have high voltage metallic mercury amalgam dental fillings and that their symptoms improved immediately after these were replaced.


Here is a recent patient’s account of her experience.


“I first consulted Dr Bourne during August 2020 because I had been feeling abnormally tired for years. He identified two high voltage mercury amalgam dental fillings as the causes of my tiredness and advised me to consult a mercury free dentist with a view to having my high voltage mercury amalgam dental fillings replaced.

I initially visited a mercury free dentist in September and the fillings were replaced in November.

Since they were replaced, I have no longer felt abnormally tired and have been able to concentrate better at work. My tiredness actually cleared up immediately after the fillings were changed. Apparently, this was due to removing the sources of electricity in my mouth.

I used to have a sore throat every winter and this year it came back again in September.         My sore throat also cleared up immediately after my high voltage dental fillings were replaced.”



Dental amalgam contains 50% mercury, copper, silver and tin and such metals bathed in acid saliva form a battery.


Experience gained from collaborating with a mercury free dentist, has indicated that the metallic dental fillings that are in most urgent need of replacement, are those with the highest associated voltages above 100mV. This observation supports G.P.s and physicians routinely using voltmeters to identify high voltage metallic dental fillings in their chronically ill patients’ teeth. Patients with high voltage amalgam fillings should be referred to mercury free dentists (7) or to teaching hospital dental departments for appropriate dental treatment.


Replacing toxic high voltage amalgam dental fillings requires specialist dental expertise, which is time consuming and expensive. This initial cost could, however, be offset against the consequent reduction in long term medical costs that would accrue from such appropriate treatment.


Electrical stress from an oral battery effect rather than chronic mercury poisoning causes the pathological tiredness that is associated with high voltage amalgam dental fillings. An earthing mat (9) can earth such pathogenic static electricity and enable electrically stressed patients to become temporally clearer headed.


Autopsy research on cadavers (10) has shown that mercury from dental amalgam is deposited in body organs proportionately to the number of amalgam dental fillings and to the number of years that they have been in place.  At autopsy, the highest concentrations of mercury were found in the brain, thyroid gland and kidneys. In view of this finding, it is improbable that replacing patients’ amalgam dental fillings would cause sufficient reduction in systemic mercury poisoning to account for the immediate clinical improvements that have been reported in the above two case histories. The immediate clinical improvements were apparently caused by an immediate cessation of dental amalgam generated electricity.


Dental mercury is liable to be deposited in the brain (10) and mercury particles in the brain are micro aerials that attract harmful electromagnetic radiation and that can cause people with mercury amalgam dental fillings to feel ‘phased out’ when visiting electrically polluted places such as airports and underground railways (11).


Mercury deposited in sheep kidneys significantly impairs renal function (12), which is probably why there is a much higher incidence of dialysis dependent renal failure patients in wealthy countries, whose residents can afford mercury amalgam dental ‘treatment’ than in poor countries whose residents cannot (13).


In view of these considerations, it is suggested that doctors routinely measure voltages at metallic dental fillings in their chronically ill patients’ mouths and that if high voltage fillings are found (14,15), they should refer such patients to dentists with post-graduate expertise in mercury-free dentistry (7) or to suitable teaching hospital dental departments for replacement of their high voltage pathogenic amalgam dental fillings.


Since mercury amalgam dental fillings cause pathogenic oral electric currents and pathogenic mercury deposits in vital organs and are consequently a major cause of health deterioration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13), the use of mercury amalgam in dentistry should be discontinued.




The above two case histories are consistent with some refractory medical conditions being suitable for treatment that includes replacing patients’ high voltage mercury amalgam dental fillings. Further clinical experience will indicate whether this intervention can be successfully replicated in a cohort of chronically ill patients with high voltage metallic dental fillings.  

I am prepared to provide voltmeters to researchers, who are willing to measure the voltages at metallic dental fillings in chronically ill patients’ mouths, particularly for those with chronic fatigue syndrome hypertension, migraine, epilepsy, renal failure, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s syndromes. Voltage measurements could be recorded by any member of a medical team including students (14).


Chronically ill patients, with metallic dental fillings with voltages above 100mV (15), would be referred to suitable dentists (7) or to suitable teaching hospital dental departments for replacement of their high voltage amalgam fillings with non-metallic dental material. Clinical outcomes would be monitored at Medical Outpatients.


High voltage dental fillings may cause abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In view of this, patients with migraine or epilepsy and high voltage dental fillings, could have their EEG recordings taken before and after dental treatment to replace their high voltage dental fillings. This intervention could normalise such patients’ EEG recordings and simultaneously remove the cause of their migraine or epilepsy.



  1. If the proposed research confirms that replacing high voltage metallic dental fillings in chronically ill patients’ teeth can be therapeutic, this finding will support medical doctors routinely measuring voltages at metallic dental fillings in their chronically ill patients’ mouths and referring chronically ill patients with high voltage metallic dental fillings for dental treatment to have their pathogenic high voltage metallic fillings replaced.


   2. The research could support mercury free dental treatment being provided for NHS patients. 



   3. If the BDA accepts that high voltage metallic dental fillings are pathogenic, it should 

       review the scientific considerations that caused Sweden to prohibit the use of mercury 

       in dentistry (4) and provide similar advice to British dentists.


  1. A snapshot of biological dentistry in Europe AIOB. Raymondo Pische MD, DDS.  (November 2017. (Rio.pdf). Mercury in all forms poisons cellular function by altering the tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins and by binding with sulfhydryl and selenohydryl groups. Consequently, mercury can potentially impair function of any organ, or subcellular structure. The chief target area of mercury is the brain, but peripheral nerve function, renal function, endocrine and muscle function, and several types of dermatitis have been described. Mercury is believed to interfere with DNA transcription and protein synthesis in the developing brain, with destruction of endoplasmic reticulum and disappearance of ribosomes. Mercury causes kidney toxicity, autoimmune conditions, immune system dysfunction and hypersensitivity reactions such as asthma, and dermatitis.


     2. The environmental impact of dental amalgam and resin-based composite materials. S. 

         Mulligan,1, G. Kakonyi,2 K. Moharamzadeh,1 S. F. Thornton2 and N. Martin,

         BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL | VOLUME 224 NO. 7 | APRIL 13, 201


     3. "Never has so much harm been done to so many by so few."


          Professor Murray J Vimy, Professor of oral medicine at Calgary University, Canada,   

          speaking about dental mercury in the year 2000.


      4.  Mercury in dental-filling materials - an updated risk analysis in environmental medical

           terms. An overview of scientific literature published in 1997–2002 and current knowledge.

           In 1998, a report commissioned by the Swedish Government stated that ‘mercury from               amalgam fillings is liable to damage the central nervous system, the kidneys and the

           immune system’. The Swedish Dental Material Commission advised that exposure to

           dental mercury amalgams are hazardous and mercury is liable to be deposited in the 

           thyroid gland, retina of the eye and in the testicles.


            Seychelles Medical and Dental Journal, Special Issue, Vol 7, No 1, November 2004

            Maths Berlin MD, PhD. Professor emeritus of Environmental Health, University of Lund,



          5. DENTISTRY WITHOUT MERCURY by Sam Ziff and Michael Ziff.  2001.                                      ISBN 0-941011-04-6.


          6. TOXIC DENTISTRY EXPOSED (the link between dentistry and chronic disease).

              Graham Munro Hall BDS and Lilian Munro Hall BDS.


          7. British Society for Mercury Free Dentistry (


          8. Judith Moore et al. Why do people seek alternative therapies?  British Medical Journal

              (1985), 290, 29-29. 


              During 1985, the group of British doctors (Julian Kenyon, David Dowson and George

              Lewith), who practised vegatesting in Southampton at the Centre for The Study of

              Complementary Medicine, authorised a survey of their practice success rate to be

              carried out by senior medical students and the findings were published in a letter to the

              British Medical Journal. In the letter, it was pointed out that only about 20% of

              techniques employed by conventional doctors have been properly evaluated. The

              survey found that the majority of patients attending the clinic had long-term health

              problems, and that between 60-70% of the. experienced significant health

              improvements as a result of attending the clinic for only eight weeks. As the patients

              had previously been unsuccessfully ‘treated’ with conventional medicine for up to ten

              years, the improvements were impressive.


          9. Earthing mats are available from Groundology: (


         10. Dental Amalgam and Mercury Levels in Autopsy Tissues: Food for Thought. Guzzi,

               Gianpaolo DDS; Grandi, Marco MD†; Cattaneo, Cristina PhD†; Calza, Stefano MSc;

               Minoia, Claudio BSc‡; Ronchi, Anna BSc‡; Gatti Anna BSc; Severi, Gianluca PhD∥.

               The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: March 2006 -Volume 27

               issue 1 - p 42-45.



                Eighteen cadavers from routine autopsy casework were subject to a study of tissue

                levels total mercury in brain, thyroid, and kidney samples by atomic absorption. On

                these same cadavers, all dental amalgam fillings, the most important source of

                organic mercury exposure in the general population, according to the World Health

                Organisation (WHO) were charted. Total mercury levels were significantly higher in                      subjects with a greater number of occlusal amalgam surfaces (>12) compared with

                those with fewer occlusal amalgams (0-3) in all types of tissue (all P ≤ 0.04). Mercury

                levels were significantly higher in brain tissues compared with thyroid and kidney

                tissues in subjects with more than 12 occlusal amalgam fillings (all P ≤ 0.01) but not in

                subjects with 3 or less occlusal amalgams (all P ≥ 0.07).


          11.  Dirty Electricity. Samuel Milham MD, MPH. 2010.ISBN: 13:978-



          12. Mercury from dental "silver" tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function. Boyd N.D;

                Benediktsson, H; Vimy MJ; D.E. Hooper, and Lorscheider F.; Am. J. Physiol. 261,

               (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 30): R1010- R1014, 199.



               Within thirty days after placement of twelve occlusal amalgam fillings in six adult.   

               sheep, there was a 50% impairment of kidney function. After sixty days, there was

               60%. impairment in renal function.


          13. During a lecture at the Royal London Hospital about twenty-five years ago, Prof

                Blandy (professor of nephrology) pointed out that the incidence of renal failure is

                statistically much higher in wealthy developed countries than in poor undeveloped

                countries. He subsequently agreed with me that this is likely to be due to the

                extensive use of dental mercury in wealthy countries and he agreed with my

                suggestion of research to measure the voltages associated with the amalgam fillings

                of teeth in renal failure patients and to compare them with those of age matched

                controls. The research was not allowed because it was unfunded.


          14. Set an electrician’s voltmeter to measure up to 2 volts (2000mV). Place one probe

                gently on the inside of the patient’s cheek (buccal mucosa), and the other gently on

                the 'silver' dental filling being investigated.  Record the positions and voltages of all

                the teeth with voltages above 100 mV because the amalgam fillings in these teeth will

                be replaced first. Ideally, all the mercury amalgam dental fillings should eventually be


                This recommendation is based on about forty years clinical experience.



© 2021 by Integrated Medical Centre, London, England. All rights reserved.


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